“The space exploration activities have often been used as a proxy competition for geopolitical rivalries”, as it was illustrated in the “Space Race” between the USA and the URSS during the Cold War. The space exploration capacity is thus regarded for a long time as a demonstration of one nation’s hard power, which not only represents huge scientific interests, but also has strong implications in the geopolitical competitions. Given this background, how and to what extent can “international collaboration”, listed in the Global Exploration Roadmap, go beyond one nation’s own interest and truly boost related technologies for all the mankind’s development? Are there any possible measures we can take to make sure that the global collaboration aligns with the nation’s interest?


Global Exploration Roadmap Derived Concept for Human Exploration of the Moon