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Most European states have opted for decentralization and independent authorities to rationalize their governments.

However, digital platforms are now struggling to offer increasingly personalized and automated services to their users.This is mostly achieved through data over-centralization. What’s more, digital transformation & open innovation avoid to develop the same software multiple times.

Will governments still be able to offer public services that are competitive with GAFAM, if their local administrations and public entities all have different data and software that are not inter-operable ?